Pneumothorax is more frequent in the neonatal period than at any other time in life, significantly more so in infants <1500g.
The risk for pneumothorax is increased in infants with:
- respiratory distress syndrome
- meconium aspiration syndrome
- pulmonary hypoplasia
- infants who need resuscitation at birth
- CPAP and positive pressure ventilation.
Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill.