Category Archives: Congenital anomalies
Hydrops fetalis is defined as the accumulation of abnormal fluid in at least two different fetal compartments (e.g. subcutaneous oedema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, ascites). Polyhydramnios is often associated. Reference: Désilets, V., Audibert, F., Wilson, R., Brock, J. A., Carroll, J., Cartier, L., … Continue reading
Although 5th finger clinodactyly is associated with some syndromes (e.g. Down syndrome), it is a common minor abnormality with a UK population incidence of ~1% Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill.
In bilateral antenatal renal pelvis dilatation, an urgent ultrasound scan is needed after birth to look for residual significant renal pelvis dilatation (over 10mm) and any dilated ureter or thickened bladder wall that may signify posterior urethral valves. A normal … Continue reading
Absence of a red reflex is an important finding on newborn examination and could be caused by congenital cataracts (incidence 2.5/10,000). The most common cause is idiopathic (40-50%) but they are also linked to trisomy 21, viral or parasitic intrauterine … Continue reading
If clinical examination suggests congenital dislocation of the hip, then referral should be made immediately to an orthopaedic specialist and they should be seen within 2 weeks. Regardless of clinical examination findings, the following should be referred for hip USS within … Continue reading
The prevalence of structural congenital heart disease is approximately 5 per 1,000 total births (~0.5%). The antenatal diagnosis of serious congenital heart disease is only 50%. The incidence of heart murmurs on day 1 examination, however, may be as high as … Continue reading