Category Archives: Infection

Tip 152: hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a single stranded RNA virus leading to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and occasionally hepatocellular carcinoma. Unlike Hepatitis B, vertical transmission is rare (~5% in Hep C viraemic mothers, increasing to 15-25% from a mother co-infected with HIV), so … Continue reading

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Tip 123b: prolonged rupture of membranes

According to the NICE guidelines, asymptomatic term babies should be closely observed for the first 12 hours of life (at 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours) for: Respiratory rate, work of breathing (grunting, subcostal recession, nasal flare), central … Continue reading

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Tip 123a: prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM)

The risk of serious neonatal infection is 1% with pre-labour rupture of membranes, rather than 0.5% for women with intact membranes. The definition of prolonged rupture of membranes is 24 hours for a term baby and 18 hours for a preterm baby. Reference: National Institute … Continue reading

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Tip 119: neutropenia

Bacterial infection may induce a transient neutropenia, especially in preterm infants. If it persists >12 hours in the presence of clinical sepsis, it is a poor prognostic sign. Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill.

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Tip 109b: Listeria 2

Listeria infection in neonates has a poor outcome: spontaneous abortion (10-20%), preterm delivery (50%) and intrauterine fetal death (11%). At birth 34% of infants affected had signs of fetal distress, with 75% having meconium at delivery – particularly those who … Continue reading

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Tip 109a: Listeria

Listeria infection is 18 times more common in pregnant women than non-pregnant women, (a reflection of the deficiency of cell medicated immunity in the third trimester) and is usually a mild, flu-like illness for the mother. Reference: Okike, I. O., Lamont, … Continue reading

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Tip 108: BCG

The BCG vaccine is a live attenuated strain derived from Mycobacterium bovis. Analysis shows the vaccine to be 70 to 80% effective against the most severe forms of the disease, including TB meningitis in children. The neonatal UK vaccination programme … Continue reading

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