Category Archives: Infection

Tip 84: VZIG 2

~50% neonates exposed to maternal chicken pox will become infected despite VZIG prophylaxis. In up to 2/3 of these, infections are mild or asymptomatic but rare fatal cases have been reported in the period four days before to two days after delivery. … Continue reading

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Tip 83: varicella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG)

VZIG is recommended for infants whose mothers develop chickenpox (but not shingles) in the period seven days before to seven days after delivery. VZIG is also recommended for VZ antibody-negative infants exposed to chickenpox or shingles in the first seven days of … Continue reading

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Tip 81: congenital varicella

With maternal Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) primary infection (chicken pox) at <20/40, congenital varicella syndrome can occur which includes limb hypoplasia, microcephaly, cataracts, growth retardation and skin scarring. The mortality rate is high. In the late 2nd and 3rd trimesters … Continue reading

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Tip 48: herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection

There are three main presentations of neonatal HSV: 1. Disseminated disease involves lungs, liver, adrenal glands, skin, eyes, and brain 2. Skin, eyes and/or mouth (SEM) disease 3. Central nervous system disease. Symptoms are generally non-specific and only 2/3 have … Continue reading

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Tip 46: meningitis

The incidence of neonatal meningitis is 2-3/10,000 births. The most common organisms are: GBS Gram negative bacilli (E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae) Streptococcus pneumoniae Listeria is less common than 20 years ago. Long term complications include hydrocephalus, seizures, hemiparesis, deafness & … Continue reading

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Tip 45: Group B Streptococcus (GBS)

~25% of women carry GBS vaginally. ~90% of babies with GBS infection present within 24 hours of birth. It typically presents with sepsis (69%), pneumonia (26%), respiratory distress (13%), and meningitis (11%). References: Heath PT, Jardine LA. Neonatal infections: group B … Continue reading

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Tip 33b: congenital CMV

>90% infants with infection are asymptomatic but can still develop sensorineural hearing loss. Other symptoms/signs are: IUGR, microcephaly,  thrombocytopenia, jaundice, hepatitis, pneumonitis, periventricular calcification, chorioretinitis and cataracts. Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill.

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