Category Archives: Ophthalmology

Tip 43: congenital cataracts

Absence of a red reflex is an important finding on newborn examination and could be caused by congenital cataracts (incidence 2.5/10,000). The most common cause is idiopathic (40-50%) but they are also linked to trisomy 21, viral or parasitic intrauterine … Continue reading

Posted in Congenital anomalies, Ophthalmology | Leave a comment

Tip 2: ROP screening

100% neonates <32/40 or <1501g at birth need to be screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). <27/40, the first screening should be at 30-31/40 CGA. For all other eligible babies, the first screening should be at 4-5/52 age, before discharge from … Continue reading

Posted in Ophthalmology, Prematurity | Leave a comment

Tip 244: epiphora

Epiphora is a watering eye, which is infants is usually caused by delayed canalisation of the nasolacrimal duct mucosa. It can be present in up to 20% of infants. Most cases resolve spontaneously by 18 months of age without any … Continue reading

Posted in Ophthalmology | Leave a comment

Tip 222: gonococcal conjunctivitis

This usually presents with bilateral, profuse, purulent discharge from the conjunctiva in the first 24 hours of life, though it can present later. The cornea can be severely damaged if treatment is not started quickly, therefore do not wait for … Continue reading

Posted in Infection, Ophthalmology | Leave a comment

Tip 220: chlamydia conjunctivitis

Chylamydia conjunctivitis develops 5 – 14 days after delivery, usually in one eye but affecting the other after another 2 – 7 days. Oedema and erythema of the eyelids is common, along with an eye discharge that may be watery … Continue reading

Posted in Infection, Ophthalmology | Leave a comment

Tip 211: retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)

ROP is classified (internationally agreed) by: Zone of involvement (centred around the optic disc) Stage of appearance Presence of ‘plus’ disease – abnormalities of posterior retinal or iris blood vessels Evidence of ROP in zone 1 (around the optic disc), … Continue reading

Posted in Ophthalmology, Prematurity | Leave a comment

Tip 150: oxygen and ROP

Giving supplemental oxygen in preterm infants with incompletely vascularised retina causes hyperoxia and vasoconstriction. This in turn may lead to local hypoxia, up‐regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, and excessive proliferation of new vessels and fibrous tissue that invades the … Continue reading

Posted in Ophthalmology, Prematurity | Leave a comment