Category Archives: Respiratory

Tip 22b: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)

Postnatal morbidity is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia (depending on the amount of abdominal contents in the thorax) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Postnatal survival ranges from 50 to 95%, thought to be mainly influenced by the size of the defect. References: Field D, … Continue reading

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Tip 230: laryngomalacia 2

Laryngomalacia is associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux. It is twice as common in boys. Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill. Previously published: 12/03/15

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Tip 229: laryngomalacia

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of infant stridor. Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. London: Churchill. Previously published: 10/03/15

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Tip 184: permissive hypercapnia

By tolerating higher pCO2 levels in the first few weeks of life for preterm infants, there is a reduction in the time on mechanical ventilation and its associated volutrauma and barotrauma. The long terms effects are still unknown. Widely accepted protocols … Continue reading

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Tip 181: surfactant for RDS

Prophylactic surfactant (100mg/kg) in the delivery room should be considered in: Babies born <26/40 Babies born <31/40 who require intubation in the delivery room Early rescue surfactant (200mg/kg) should be considered for premature babies if there are worsening features of RDS: Increasing oxygen requirement (>30% if … Continue reading

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Tip 178: early corticosteroids for CLD

The use of early (< 8 days) corticosteroids reduced death or CLD at 28 days (RR 0.92 [0.88-0.96]) and at 36 weeks (RR 0.89 [0.84-0.95]). Other short-term benefits were successful extubation and closure of PDA. Statistically significant short-term negative effects were: hyperglycaemia, … Continue reading

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Tip 172: the CAP trial

The Caffeine for Apnoea of Prematurity (CAP) trial enrolled 2006 infants, birth weights 500 – 1250 grams, to receive either caffeine or placebo, during the first 10 days of life. In the caffeine group, there was a decreased number requiring … Continue reading

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