Category Archives: Antenatal

Tip 152: hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a single stranded RNA virus leading to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and occasionally hepatocellular carcinoma. Unlike Hepatitis B, vertical transmission is rare (~5% in Hep C viraemic mothers, increasing to 15-25% from a mother co-infected with HIV), so … Continue reading

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Tip 126: oligohydramnios 2

The fetal causes of oligohydramnios include: Chromosomal abnormalities, e.g. aneuploidy Congenital abnormalities, especially those associated with impaired urine production, e.g. renal agenesis Growth restriction (multiple causes, including maternal factors e.g. placental insufficiency) Demise Post-term pregnancy Ruptured fetal membranes Most cases, … Continue reading

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Tip 109b: Listeria 2

Listeria infection in neonates has a poor outcome: spontaneous abortion (10-20%), preterm delivery (50%) and intrauterine fetal death (11%). At birth 34% of infants affected had signs of fetal distress, with 75% having meconium at delivery – particularly those who … Continue reading

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Tip 95: CTG – pathological

A pathological CTG is one in which ≥2 non-reassuring or ≥1 abnormal features are present. Abnormal features are: Baseline HR <100bpm, >180bpm, or a sinusoidal pattern for ≥10 mins Variability <5bpm for 90 mins Single prolonged deceleration >3 mins Atypical variable decelerations in >50% of contractions or late … Continue reading

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Tip 92: CTG – suspicious

A suspicious CTG is one in which one non-reassuring feature is present: Baseline HR 100 – 109bpm or 161 – 180bpm Variability <5bpm over 40 – 90 mins Single prolonged deceleration ≤3 mins Typical variable decelerations in >50% of contractions over a … Continue reading

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Tip 91b: congenital pulmonary adenomatous malformation (CPAM)

If hydrops is not present antenatally, spontaneous ‘resolution’ is common, with 50% of babies being asymptomatic at birth. Abnormal tissue may still be present, however, with later risk of malignant transformation. Hence these babies should have postnatal CT chest with … Continue reading

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Tip 91a: congenital pulmonary adenomatous malformation (CPAM)

Also called congenital cystic adenomatous malformation (CCAM), it is usually detected antenatally with a peak size at 25/40. The main risk is hydrops fetalis, with high mortality if present. Reference: Sfakianaki, A. K., & Copel, J. A. (2012). Congenital cystic lesions … Continue reading

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