Category Archives: Antenatal

Tip 234: chorioamnionitis

Chorioamnionitis is infection of the amniotic fluid, membranes, placenta, and/or decidua. It is a major risk factor for neonatal sepsis. Diagnosis is sometimes made by the presence of maternal fever alone, but for research purposes is defined by the presence of … Continue reading

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Tip 219: neonatal chlamydia

Pregnant women infected with chlamydia are at increased risk of premature labour, premature rupture of membranes, low birthweight infants and still births. 50-70% of infants born to women with genital chlamydia infection will acquire chlamydia infection if no prophylaxis is given … Continue reading

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Tip 217: congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is caused by transplacental transmission of spirochetes. Transmission is highest (60-90%) in untreated maternal primary or secondary syphilis. In those infected, symptoms present either early (<2 years but mostly < 3 months) or late (>2 years). Reference: Long, S., Pickering, L. (2008). Principles … Continue reading

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Tip 200: growth in the third trimester

The fetus multiplies in weight five times from 24 weeks gestation to term. External link: Larmour, K., Shaw, V., 2016. Enteral nutrition for the preterm infant, version 2.0. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust: London. Previously published: 10/12/14

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Tip 179: fetal pain

The fetus produces a stress response to painful stimuli from 18/40, but it is not proven if this is perceived as pain. The nociception system is definitely known to be present and functioning from 26/40. In practice we consider that any preterm baby can perceive … Continue reading

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Tip 175: hepatitis B 2

Infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected mothers are at high risk of acquiring HBV infection. Without intervention, the risk of transmission from a hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive mother is 70%-90% compared with the risk of about … Continue reading

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Tip 174: HSV 2

HSV disease can be acquired during in utero, perinatally, or postnatally. The most common mode of transmission is via direct contact of the baby with infected vaginal secretions during delivery. The risk is greatest with primary HSV infection acquired by … Continue reading

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