Category Archives: Antenatal

Tip 83: varicella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG)

VZIG is recommended for infants whose mothers develop chickenpox (but not shingles) in the period seven days before to seven days after delivery. VZIG is also recommended for VZ antibody-negative infants exposed to chickenpox or shingles in the first seven days of … Continue reading

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Tip 81: congenital varicella

With maternal Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) primary infection (chicken pox) at <20/40, congenital varicella syndrome can occur which includes limb hypoplasia, microcephaly, cataracts, growth retardation and skin scarring. The mortality rate is high. In the late 2nd and 3rd trimesters … Continue reading

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Tip 80: hydrops fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is defined as the accumulation of abnormal fluid in at least two different fetal compartments (e.g. subcutaneous oedema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, ascites). Polyhydramnios is often associated. Reference: Désilets, V., Audibert, F., Wilson, R., Brock, J. A., Carroll, J., Cartier, L., … Continue reading

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Tip 79: oligohydramnios

Severe, prolonged oligohydramnios/anhydramnios is likely to cause pulmonary hypoplasia with high early neonatal mortality. There may also be IUGR, limb contractures (arthrogryposis) and typical Potter’s facies (abnormal ears, flattened nose and epicanthic folds). Reference: Rennie & Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology, 5th Ed, 2005. … Continue reading

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Tip 73: antenatal umbilical artery Doppler

In normal pregnancy, there is a progressive increase in end-diastolic velocity due to growth and dilatation of the umbilical circulation. In some pregnancies with IUGR and/or pre-eclampsia, there is a reduction in the diastolic velocity and in severe cases there … Continue reading

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Tip 72: in-utero growth restriction (IUGR)

Known associations with IUGR involve fetal, placental and maternal factors. There are strong links with smoking, vascular abnormalities, alcohol, hypercoaguable disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, congenital malformations and infections. Reference:  Militello, M., et al, 2009. Obstetric management of IUGR. Journal of Prenatal Medicine; … Continue reading

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Tip 252: IUGR vs SGA

The terms are often used synonymously but there is a difference in meaning. Small for gestational age (SGA) defines a fetus or neonate whose weight is <10th percentile for gestational age or two standard deviations below the population norm. It  considers … Continue reading

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